The tensions under scrutiny here spring from differences between communicative planning theory (CPT) and new public management (NPM) regarding the kind of behaviour expected from planners working in the public sector. NPM is a set of ideas applying neo-liberalism to public sector management. Neo-liberalism recommends market solutions to most problems, as accounted for in Chapter 5, and markets are a type of institution grounded in openly strategic action and means-end rationality. CPT, on the other hand, is guided by ideals of dialogue and communicative rationality. Sharp contrasts between NPM and CPT are therefore to be expected.