ABSTRACT

Critical CPT argues for open processes, inclusive participation, and broad deliberation. But in some contexts limits must be set, because potential participants do not respect the basic rules of decision-making in liberal societies and loath the superior idea of democracy itself. Even critical pragmatism – a watchdog for openness and inclusion – can in exceptional cases limit hospitality for the sake of protecting democracy. CPT is more credible as a critical theory defending democracy if it also refl ects critically on its own inclusive tenets and recommendations and dares take the unpleasant discussion of how to exclude in order to protect primary values.