As discussed in Chapter 3, the main language ideology which is investigated in this research is the ideology of normative monolingualism. This ideology has two main tenets: fi rst, the ideal of a nation having one and only one language and second, the value of strict separation of languages in cases of individual bilingualism. In this section, how this ideology fits into German society will be discussed through applying the concepts of iconicity, erasure, and recursiveness (Gal and Irvine 1995). Further, the caveat to normative monolingualism, elite bilingualism, will be discussed in terms of how it relates to English-German bilinguals.