This is one of three sections that provides tools for analyzing texts. Here the focus is on the choice of the verbal signs and their effects. The signs discussed here are based on Michael Halliday's grammar. This is a functional grammar that focuses on how grammatical choices encode three kinds of meaning in every clause. Halliday calls these functions. It is of course not possible to work with the complete grammar, so I have chosen those aspects of the grammar that are key for constructing and interpreting positions in texts.