The domestic sphere in London, like any city, constitutes the vast majority of the urban realm. But unlike many British cities, which by 1980 had largely hollowed out their central areas as locations for residential living, London had retained a large and heterogeneous residential population in its central boroughs (the exception being large parts of the City of London). The wealthy preserved their strong predilection for living centrally, most notably in the highly exclusive and expensive Georgian and Victorian expansions to the immediate west and north of the centre. The working classes also maintained a strong presence in the public housing estates, most notably to the immediate south and east of the centre. By contrast, for a long time during the twentieth century, the expanding middle classes were being squeezed out through a combination of high housing costs, poor-quality schooling (perceived or real) and an environment seen to be unsuitable for children (Edwards 2010: 192).