Almost all the patterns and processes to be examined in thenext three chapters – landform patterns and processes,ecological patterns and processes and cultural patterns and processes – take place within a context of climatic patterns and processes. The exception to this are major landform processes such as continental drift, mountain building and vulcanism which occur as a result of processes originating deep in the earth’s mantle below the crust. However, the presence of these processes and the physical results have an effect on climate patterns and processes and the history of the climate shows that landforms are eroded by processes affected by climatic conditions.