The completed system of particular programmes, when it has been finally ratified by the government, then returns as the operative plan with binding force on all branches of State activity. The problem of consistency of such a set involves taking into account all the interdependencies between them, which means, mathematically speaking, treating them as a system of simultaneous equations and considering the conditions for solution of the whole system. A Party resolution of the Twelfth Party Congress in 1923, however, clearly stipulated that “it must be established as an unshakable principle that no economic question of State of general importance can be decided by the higher authorities until it has passed through Gosplan. Capacity to co-ordinate industry with other branches of economic life was lacking; and the departments concerned respectively with industry, with transport and with the collection and distribution of supplies were to a large extent separate economic sovereignties.