Study of this chapter will enable the reader to:

use pH value;

explain water hardness;

identify and apply appropriate water treatment methods;

discuss storm water harvesting;

decide appropriate applications for mains pressure and storage tank cold- and hot-water systems;

understand pressure-boosted systems for tall buildings;

understand primary and secondary pipe circulation systems;

calculate the heater power for hot-water devices;

understand how cold- and hot-water pipe systems are designed;

have a basic understanding of how solar energy can be utilized in the provision of hot water in buildings;

understand the design principles for underground drainage pipework;

understand sewage-lifting requirements;

know testing procedures;

carry out a design assignment;

explain the principles of below-ground drain layout;

know the location and types of access fitting;

define the parts of waste and drain systems;

understand the type of fluid flow in a waste pipe;

explain the ventilation requirements of drainage pipes;

list and explain the ways in which the water seal can be lost from traps;

know the permitted suction pressure in a waste system;

know the diameters, slopes and maximum permitted lengths of waste and drain pipes for above-ground systems;

understand how drain systems are tested;

explain how drain systems are maintained;

calculate rainfall run-off into surface-water drains;

calculate gutter water flow capacity;

choose appropriate gutter and rainwater down pipe combinations to create an economical design;

assess methods for the disposal of surface-water;

calculate soakaway pit design.