This chapter describes briefly the Non-Parametric Probabilistic Ecological Nich (NPPEN) model that can be used in conjunction with the METAL theory because it primarily estimates the species ecological niche. It provides some examples of the use of the METAL theory and show how the theory may unify spatial and temporal patterns and processes in ecology. The chapter explains the potential influence of species interaction and describes contemporary conservatism in ecological tolerances as the species tendency to maintain constant its fundamental niche at timescales from year-to-year to multi-centennial. Ecological niche models (ENMs) and species distribution models are frequently applied to examine the potential trajectories of biological and ecological systems in the past and future. In the marine realm, biogeographical shifts have taken place, consistent with latitudinal changes expected under climate warming and hydro-climatic variability. Theoretical spatial biodiversity patterns were examined according to the degree of pseudo-species stenothermy/eurythermy. A large source of uncertainties in ecological projections originates from atmosphere-ocean general circulation models.