As you read these words you can be pretty sure that somewhere there are politicians and oﬃcials wondering how they can get stronger climate policies through while avoiding serious political damage. The aim of this book has been to identify political strategies that such people can use for this purpose. We cannot be sure that any of the strategies discussed here will play
out in the exact way we have described them. Politics is a messy and unpredictable business and the value of any given strategy will depend, in part, on the circumstances in which it is applied and how governments respond to the tactics used by those who oppose new climate policies. There is also no substitute for political leadership and keeping one’s nerve when opponents try new manoeuvres to undermine climate policy and the politicians who move to introduce them. We cannot say categorically that all the strategies described are applicable in all countries, far less to all issues or situations. Among other things their suitability will depend on the state of the economy, the nature of media coverage of climate change, public opinion and the strategies used by opponents of strong policies. Policy makers need to be very careful when selecting political
strategies to use, and inventive and adaptable in how they apply them. Choose the wrong ones for your particular circumstances and they could rebound, leading to more rather than less political damage. What we have presented in this book is a broad menu of political strategies
from which policy makers can choose to suit their circumstances. We hope it also encourages more systematic thinking about the nature of political obstacles to stronger climate policy and how they might be overcome. But we are not just writing for policy makers. Experts and activists outside
government also need to be aware of the political obstacles that face activist policy makers and how they might be overcome. It is not enough to identify the policies that are needed and simply inform those in power. You also need to show how these policies can be introduced without damaging those who introduce them. You need to think like a policy maker.