Language and subcultures: anti-language
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Language and subcultures: anti-language book
Anti-language Anti-languages may be understood as extreme versions of social dialects. They tend to arise among subcultures and groups that occupy a marginal or precarious position in society, especially where central activities of the group place them outside the law. Often the subculture or group (the 'anti-society') has an antagonistic relationship with society at large and their natural suspicion of outsiders makes it difficult to study their language; but some examples have been documented - notably the language of Polish prison life (grypserka) and that of the Calcutta underworld. In addition to these relatively contemporary cases, some historical records survive of a variety known as 'pelting speech' - an argot employed by roving bands of vagabonds in Elizabethan England.