This chapter considers arguably the most fundamental of image-making practices: drawing and painting. The discovery of European cave paintings dating back some 32,000 years remind us of humanity's deep-seated need and desire for mark-making and the rendering of images. Of course, the true purpose of paleolithic cave paintings remains unknown, and this chapter does not seek to address such a question. Instead, considering a more recent history, the chapter begins by offering some conceptual differentiation between drawing and painting. It then turns attention to ways in which we seek to make sense of art composition. Distinctions are made between what is legible, visible and visual in artworks. Following this, a critique of a semiotics of drawing and painting is explored, with specific reference to the notion of ‘subsemiotic’ marks.