Chapter 4 described a particular model for the careers interview and Chapter 5 described specific counselling skills required for working with this model in a careers context. It is of course impossible to use these skills in isolation, to bring them out with a flourish when the adviser feels like it. They are part of the overall approach. The adviser will adopt counselling skills in her own personal interview model, and they will be in place at the beginning and throughout the interview. As we have seen, some of the skills are fundamental in establishing the essential empathy which is the basis for the introduction of the other skills. The level to which the skills at the top of the skills pyramid (see Figure 5.1) are used depends on the needs of the client at that moment. For certain careers interviews the skills of immediacy and self-disclosure may not be necessary or appropriate, but in full-length interviews the adviser will draw on appropriate skills as the interview deepens and progresses. There is no way of knowing at the beginning to what depth the adviser and client will need to go, and so for each interview the foundation of empathy must be laid by the effective introduction of listening and understanding skills throughout.