ABSTRACT

It is clear from the layout of the earlier chapters that the EU counter-terrorism provisions are scattered across the policies and pillars of both the pre- and post-Lisbon EU. Reforms were already ongoing in the area of PJCCM law before the Lisbon Treaty came into force on 1 December 2009. The Lisbon Treaty added substantially to the changes in this area, by moving the entirety of law from the intergovernmental pillar III pre-Lisbon EU to the new ‘unitary’ structure post-Lisbon. In addition, a third layer of proposed reform has been set out in the Stockholm Programme. All of these reforms, focusing on cross-border law enforcement and co-operation, are being built against the backdrop of a ‘lack of harmonisation at European level of the criminal process in general’. 1 It is not intended to create one law enforcement agency, or to alter to any great extent the internal criminal law and evidence processes. The complexity that therefore follows is great.