Not until the 1950s did American Indian leaders systematically advance their agenda in pursuit of self-determination. This chapter tells the story of how, in their relations with the United States, American Indian nations used the slogan “strengthen our tribal government” to pursue political “self-determination” and “tribal sovereignty.” Eventually in the 1970s and 1980s the Quinault Indian Nation, Lummi Nation, Hoopa Valley Tribe and the Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe led the more than 500 Indian nations to seek “government-to-government” relations with the United States and fi nally the “power of self-government” through an intergovernmental compact on self-government.