ABSTRACT

Nations in relations to states are evolving new forms of political status that offer new prospects for nations and states to stop present and future confl ict. The principle of subsidiarity , for example, has become a potentially useful concept in the European Union, which recognizes Fourth World nations’ authorities over economic, social and political spheres exclusive of state control. In particular, I point to Catalonia in Spain, the Lummi Nation in the United States, the Inuit of Greenland and the Miskito and their post-war (the war between Nicaragua and the Miskito, Sumo and Rama nations was ended in 1991) relations with the Nicaraguan government. Not only are there new forms of political relationship, but also new forms of political identity being created that can help nations and states deal constructively with each other, instead of combatively.