Throughout the text I draw on a generation of personal experience in Indian Affairs in the United States and a lifetime of experiences. Overlapping these experiences is a period of 30 years’ experience in international relations representing nations in the growing debate over the position of Fourth World nations in international affairs. My analysis of what is a “nation” and how nations interact with each other and with states is informed by my own direct participation in political activities and serious research in connection with many Fourth World nations throughout the world. To be sure, the most fundamental perspective is informed by knowledge given to me through the teachings of many throughout Indian Country in North America.