Many people declare themselves to be either opponents, or adherents, or qualiﬁed adherents of the Marxist doctrine. No one thinks of asking himself: Had Marx, in fact, a doctrine? One cannot imagine that something which has excited so much controversy might not exist. Yet such is frequently the case. The question is worth raising and examining. Perhaps, after an attentive examination, we shall ﬁnd that a negative answer is called for.