The development of the universities
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The development of the universities book
A traveller who visits Oxford or Cambridge is surprised and edified by the apparent order and tranquillity that prevails in the seats of the English muses . . . The use of arms is banished from our English universities; the uniform habit of the academics, the square cap and black gown, is adapted to the civil and even clerical professions; and from the doctor in divinity to the undergraduate, the degrees of learning and age are externally distinguished . . . The students of Oxford and Cambridge are united in colleges; the maintenance is provided at their own expense or that of the founders; and the stated hours of the hall and chapel represent the discipline of a regular and as it were religious community. Edward Gibbon, Autobiography (1950) Oxford World's Classics, 34.