A static view of society governed the attitudes of many who devoted their energies and money to the education of the poor. Hannah More considered it cruelty to educate a child beyond his station in life. In contrast, Samuel Smiles, expressing his philosophy in Self-Help (1859), sought a more dynamic society. He wanted to see the poor progress both socially and economically, and he urged them to rely on their own efforts to lift themselves up:
Self-help to re-inculcate the old-fashioned but wholesome lessons which cannot perhaps too often be urged-that youth must work in order to enjoy-that nothing creditable can be accomplished without application and diligence-that the student must not be daunted by difficulties but conquer them by patience and perseverance-and that, above all, he must seek elevation of character without which capacity is worthless and worldly success is nought. Samuel Smiles, Self-Help (1859) ch IV.