Analytical techniques are often the parts of archaeology courses which most students find difficult. The bulleted points above are sufficient for AS/A Level and some first year undergraduate courses and do not require detailed scientific knowledge. Most degree-level courses will at some point require a greater depth of understanding of scientific techniques and most will involve practical work. Although this will be taught, and there are many excellent texts and ILT packages available, some scientific knowledge is needed. The first half of this chapter explains general approaches and some widely used specific methods. The second half of the chapter considers issues related to particular types of material with examples

Further examples can be found in Part II of this book.