Analytical techniques are often the parts of archaeology courses which most students ﬁnd difﬁcult. The bulleted points above are sufﬁcient for AS/A Level and some ﬁrst year undergraduate courses and do not require detailed scientiﬁc knowledge. Most degree-level courses will at some point require a greater depth of understanding of scientiﬁc techniques and most will involve practical work. Although this will be taught, and there are many excellent texts and ILT packages available, some scientiﬁc knowledge is needed. The ﬁrst half of this chapter explains general approaches and some widely used speciﬁc methods. The second half of the chapter considers issues related to particular types of material with examples
Further examples can be found in Part II of this book.