To many people, archaeology simply means excavation. Often their interest in archaeology stems from witnessing an excavation or viewing one on television or through other media. Excavation is often the public face of archaeology. It is only when people ‘dig’ deeper into the subject that they are able to recognise the role that excavation plays in the wider nature of the discipline. It has its own methodology, which constantly changes to reﬂect current thinking and improving technologies. There can never be one set of rules for excavation although there is general agreement on key elements of the process. This chapter will try to reﬂect that current consensus.