This chapter marks the transition between the theoretical and applied parts of the book. It summarises the story of Brazil’s development from 1947 to 1983, concentrating on the relation between real and financial development, with three aims: (1) to justify concentrating on this period, in particular to justify stopping in 1983; (2) to indicate the questions raised by applying the approach of the first four chapters to this period of Brazilian economic experience; (3) to indicate the method of application.