DOI link for Exclusive particles
Exclusive particles book
Just as all languages can be assumed to have at least one ‘inclusive’ or ‘additive’ particle, like E. also, too or G. auch, it is also a fair guess that they will have at least one ‘exclusive’ particle like E. only or G. nur. The basic outlines of the meaning of only and its German counterpart nur have already been described (cf. Chapter 3). A sentence with only presupposes the relevant sentence without particle and entails that none of the alternatives under consideration satisfies the open sentence obtained by substituting a variable for the focus expression (cf. Horn, 1969; Taglicht, 1984; Rooth, 1985; Altmann, 1976; Jacobs, 1983). If the problem of adequately representing the context-dependence in the selection of alternatives is neglected, the contribution made by only to a sentence like (1)a. can be described as follows:
(1) a. Only JOHN came. b. John came (presupposition) c.