2POSITIVE REDUCTIVE STRATEGIES
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Type-identity theory is the most straightforward response to the demands of physicalism. It takes psychological states to be essentially states or properties of individuals arising from causal contact with the world (either directly or indirectly via other psychological states) and leading to such contact. It identifies these states with certain brain states of individuals which are to be exactly specified by eventual psychologicalneurophysiological research. Thus it gives a ringing ‘yes’ to our first categorizing question, and, via its resolutely reductive bent, answers the remaining two questions positively as well. The model for the type-identity theory is that of scientifically established identities such as that between lightning and electrical discharge (Place (1956)) or, perhaps a better example as it is specifically an identity of properties, that between temperature and mean kinetic energy (Smart (1959)). It demands that psychological theorizing find such identities and supposes that without them physicalism will have failed. But obviously there are assumptions here that go far beyond the employment of physicalism as a regulative principle. In the first place, there are many terms that manage to successfully refer, play a useful role in describing the world, and which do not conflict with the purely physical nature of their referents without thereby being reducible to any expression definable in basic physical terms. ‘Bicycle’ for example.