For the next two decades, the Mountain was host to various forms of conflict: most notably periodically from 1840 through 1845, in 1852, 1858, and 1860. Of these, the harakāt of 1841–2, 1845, and 1860 amounted to general civil war.1 These were decades of convulsion as well as transformation for the Lebanese. During this period the Egyptians were expelled; the Druze-Maronite Imarah came to an end; and the formal structures of the feudal system were abolished. Born in conflict, the Lebanese were to give birth to even more.2