Negotiation is often advocated as an avenue to better resource management outcomes. Conflict resolution, alternative dispute resolution and mediation offer promise for an improvement on previous histories of exclusion for indigenous groups (O’Faircheallaigh 1996b; Ross 1999a; Lane and Yarrow 1998). Although there are pitfalls in alternative dispute resolution as a mechanism for redressing injustice (Beattie 1997), there is also a range of negotiations about country under way in Australia as a result of recognition of native title. The effectiveness of this approach in delivering the sort of integrated outcomes acceptable to Aboriginal groups remains to be proved.