MARX AND REVOLUTIONARY ORDER
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MARX AND REVOLUTIONARY ORDER book
The pH ‘universal indicator’ test to be conducted in this chapter is a little more complex than that carried out in Chapter 1, even though it proceeds along similar lines. Here, Marx’s Capital is the white paper, so to speak, and Russia turns it reddest, at least in the end, that is by 1917. But Marx himself shifted his own position on Russia considerably before his death in 1883, while both before and after the Russian Revolution his disciples argued about the message to be extracted from his teachings. The basic questions were: was the process described in Capital global or merely Western? How long would it take for that process to work itself out, and for capitalism to be superseded by communism? Then, in particular, to what extent was Russia a full participant in the passage from feudalism to capitalism and beyond? More certainly, during Marx’s lifetime, the USA was rapidly rising to be considered an integral participant in capitalist modernisation, but its ‘alkali’ resisted the overall impact of later Marxist doctrines. The major battles were fought in Soviet Russia, by Lenin, Stalin and Trotsky, whose struggle for the true succession will receive at least a measure of the attention that it deserves. While nonBolsheviks also joined in the debate throughout Europe and beyond, even in Russia a more traditional Western view of world order was still in existence, as evidenced in an essay on ‘The Next Task’ by the historian E.V.Tarle. Just as Robespierre provided a bridge from Chapter 1 to Chapter 2, Tarle builds another from Chapter 2 to Chapter 3.