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The Ivinghoe Beacon style of timber strengthening (Figure 15.3) In parallel with the palisaded enclosures a second type of defence developed, known at present from Ffridd Faldwyn, Montgomery, Ivinghoe Beacon, Bucks., Grimthorpe, Yorks., Castercliff, Lancs., and Dinorben, Denbigh. At Grimthorpe rubble and soil from a relatively shallow Ushaped ditch was retained between two rows of timber about 2.4 m apart, the timbers in each row being placed at about the same spacing, thus forming a rough grid which would have allowed cross-bracing to keep the structure rigid. Between the verticals of both the back and front rows one must imagine a close boarding of planks or halved timbers to prevent the rubble ﬁll from spilling out. Although dating evidence is by no means decisive, it is now becoming clear that simple box ramparts probably pre-date the conventional beginning of the Iron Age. At Rams Hill, Berks., a radiocarbon series suggests that this type of construction should be dated to the twelfth century BC. The box ramparts at both Ffridd Faldwyn and Dinorben lie at the beginning of long development sequences: at Dinorben a series of radiocarbon dates from the most recent excavation (Guilbert 1979a, 1980) range from the eighth to the sixth centuries. Grimthorpe provided two early dates for bone samples recovered from the partially silted ditch spanning the thirteenth to the eighth centuries. The dates from Ivinghoe Beacon extend from the eighth to ﬁfth centuries but the metalwork from the fort lies within the eighth to seventh centuries. At Hunsbury, Northants, the box rampart was added in front of an existing palisade which remained in use. Radiocarbon dates suggest construction between the eighth and fourth centuries BC. Finally the box rampart from Castercliff produced radiocarbon dates suggestive of a seventh-or sixthcentury construction. Taking this evidence together, there is a degree of consistency about the overall pattern, suggesting initial occupation in the twelfth to sixth centuries. Thus the earliest hillforts in Britain must have developed in parallel with those of the European Urnﬁeld cultures. Strictly, the box rampart could be thought of as a double palisade, of the type well represented in northern Britain (pp. 313-15), ﬁlled with earth and rubble. The nature of this relationship both structurally and chronologically remains to be further examined.