This chapter will provide a background for the evolution of operational art. It will be shown how the interrelationship between military and non-military factors provided the Prussian army with superior military effectiveness and efficiency. It will be demonstrated how even superior military performance could not deliver the decisive victory which Frederick was pursuing.1 Also, the impact of military theory on military practice and vice versa will be demonstrated, with particular reference to French military reforms after the Seven Years’ War. Finally, it will be shown how French military reformers created operational instruments as well as operational theory guiding their use, which would help to overcome those limitations in warfare which had denied Frederick decisive victory in battle.