We have argued that the encoding of words is an important stage of reading, and, furthermore, that it operates pretty much the same in isolation as in context. Otherwise, a chapter on the processing of words in isolation would be an empty exercise. After Chapter 3, we gave several overviews of the process of reading text. First, we examined how the eyes move through text. The eye movement record reveals that while reading is a complex process, it is largely a word-by-word affair. The chapter on inner speech revealed an important dimension of reading: recoding to sound. One important feature of inner speech is that it probably is an indicant of the more "constructive" aspects of reading, whereby the reader is adding something to the printed record in order to help decipher its larger meaning. We now wish to step closer and look at the interaction between lexical encoding and these higher-order constructive processes in reading (since not all constructive processes are necessarily involved with inner speech).