ABSTRACT

Announcing to Ferenczi the breaking off of his relations with C.Jung, Freud said: ‘I consider there is no hope of rectifying the errors…. The best way to guard against any bitterness is an attitude of expecting nothing at all, i.e. the worst. I recommend this to you.’1 However, some years later, he wrote to his son Ernst: ‘It is typically Jewish not to renounce anything and to replace what has been lost.’2 This could be seen as a characteristic instance of the human tendency to oscillate between the reality principle, which demands renunciation of the hope that certain things might change, and the pleasure principle, which cancels out renunciation by affirming that it is always possible to rediscover or to replace what has been lost.