An important final phase in the campaign against natural economy is

to separate industry from agriculture, to eradicate rural industries

altogether from peasant economy. Handicraft in its historical beginnings

was a subsidiary occupation, a mere appendage to agriculture in civilised

and settled societies. In medieval Europe it became gradually independ-

ent of the corvée farm and agriculture, it developed into specialised occu-

pations, i.e. production of commodities by urban guilds. In industrial

districts, production had progressed from home craft by way of primi-

tive manufacture to the capitalist factory of the staple industries, but in

the rural areas, under peasant economy, home crafts persisted as an

intrinsic part of agriculture. Every hour that could be spared from culti-

vating the soil was devoted to handicrafts which, as an auxiliary domes-

tic industry, played an important part in providing for personal needs.