In this chapter, I prepare the foundations for my second interpretation of the ND as a species of political modernism by determining what is meant by modern, postmodern, and premodern. I argue that modernity and the ‘malaises of modernity’ form the backdrop for understanding the key concerns of the ND. I point out that the ND’s quest for alternative modernity connotes a rejection of liberal and socialist narratives of modernity, but not all aspects of modernity per se. The ND valorizes the technical aspects of modernity, but rejects its political and cultural effects from administrative equality and multiculturalism to excessive egoism and the loss of ethnically based social solidarity.