I have thus examined three conceptual tools for understanding the ND, all wedded to the ND’s assessment of the modern and postmodern conditions. Furthermore, I argued that the ND’s assessment of modernity is consistent with other revolutionary right-wing thinkers of previous generations from Charles Maurras to Ernst J ü nger, as well as the desire of various political forces in the twentieth century to achieve alternative modernities. In this chapter, I begin applying the three conceptual tools to ND goals and practices. I examine how the ND’s views of modernity are inextricably linked to the goal of restoring what I call premodern cultural consciousness (or ‘race-based’ consciousness) to Europe’s ‘original’ peoples and the desire to raze liberal, multicultural Europe and erect in its place an imperial, federal, ‘Europe for Europeans’.