In Chapter 1 , I demonstrated the key role of Alain de Benoist in spreading ND ideas throughout the European continent and beyond in a transnational spirit. De Benoist ( 2012 : 119) insisted that the aim of the ND was no rightist ‘international’, but that the ND’s infl uence spread to ‘many people in many countries’, owing to the translation of de Benoist’s books into about 15 languages; contacts in Russia with key political and military elites through Aleksandr Dugin; his key role in the creation of la Fondation Delta and the journal TeKos (which even borrowed the GRECE logo) in Flanders, Belgium; and especially the foundation of the Italian Nuova Destra , a cultural movement that ‘evolved’ in a manner ‘most comparable’ to the French ND. Yet, de Benoist received assistance in spreading his worldview from numerous intellectuals throughout Europe and even in the Americas. For example, Liber Amicorum Alain de Benoist ( Les Amis d’Alain de Benoist 2004 ) gathered the testimonies of 60 Alain de Benoist sympathizers from various countries and political camps, which shifted the debate from whether de Benoist was a ‘crypto-fascist’ to a focus on the man and his moral values. As Fran ç ois-Emmanu ë l Boucher ( 2007 : 93-101) points out, Liber Amicorum Alain de Benoist sought to propagate de Benoist’s ideas throughout Europe by stressing the French intellectual’s personal qualities: intelligence, ‘objectivity’, leadership skills, courage, honesty, generosity, ‘aristocratic spirit’, and his ‘magnetic’ abilities to ‘awaken’ and inspire others. By shifting attention away from the polarizing and polemical fi gure of de Benoist and his past, it was hoped that the book could help in spreading ND ideas through the notion that an ‘ethical’ man like de Benoist must necessarily be in favour of a politics we might all support. This was a clever use of metapolitics designed to win hearts and minds, while skirting the connections of ND authors to fascism, Nazism, Vichyism, CR authors, or the struggle for French Algeria.