In this chapter, I trace the complex relationship between the ND and contemporary radical right-wing populist parties. I begin by identifying the core characteristics of radical right-wing populism. I then demonstrate how the ND provided the ideological ammunition, discourse changes, key themes, and some important personnel for radical right-wing populist parties. It is important to note that the foundation of the ND preceded the creation of the extreme right-wing FN. As posited in Chapter 1 , in the France of the 1970s the ND was an intellectual force to be reckoned with, while at the time the FN languished in political and electoral irrelevance. Yet, as the FN grew in importance and scored important electoral victories in the mid-1980s and 1990s, the ND’s intellectual and political pedigree dwindled dramatically. This led de Benoist, Champetier, and other ND fi gures to claim that they were the victims of political correctness at the hands of the mass media and established elites.