Nyerere's detennination to abide by his agreement with Amin to refrain from giving any support to movements aimed at subverting the government of Uganda was shaken in October 1978 when Ugandan troops crossed the Kagera River and seized more than 700 square miles of Tanzanian territory - ostensibly as a reprisal for a Tanzanian attack on Uganda. The real reason for the invasion was to distract attention within the Ugandan anny from the divisions that had occurred even within a body which had been consistently loyal to Amin. The president's idiosyncratic and frequently cruel dominion had gradually alienated virtually the whole country. His ministers had found it impossible to fulfil their responsibilities when all decisions were taken, often on the basis of a transient whim, by Amin himself, and without any prior consultation. His critics, particularly among the intelligentsia, had been murdered or had fled without waiting to be attacked. Prominent among those killed in the early days of Amin's regime were Benedicto Kiwanuka, Uganda's first prime minister and subsequently chief justice under Amin, and Frank Kalimuzo, vice-chancellor of Makerere University. At a later stage Archbishop Janani Luwum of the Church of Uganda was also murdered, as has already been seen, and many others were to suffer in like manner.