Nationalism emerged as an ideology as a consequence of the French Revolution. Two hundred years after that revolution, it can be recognized as the most successful ideology the world has ever known. Empires and other pre-national forms of political organization have come to an end, save for one or two small remnants such as Gibraltar and New Caledonia. The whole land surface of the world, with the single exception of Antarctica, is now divided between the jurisdictions of nation-states. The formal independence and equality of these states is recognized in international law and in the organization of the United Nations and its agencies. In short, nationalism has triumphed.