Citizenship is a deeply gendered concept. Most citizenship theories have excluded women from the full status of citizenship by narrowly limiting the concept to the public sphere, to political participation, to economic independence and to the notion of breadwinners. In the 1950s, T.H.Marshall extended the notion of citizenship from civil and political rights to social rights. A theory of “social citizenship” developed by Marshall was an important way of counterbalancing the possible harmful effects of capitalism, to reduce general risks and to enrich the concrete substance of civilized life. However, he did not pay any attention to gender (Bussemaker and Voet 1998).