As Anatoly Khazanov ( 1983 : 162) writes in relation to the evolution of nomadism on the Eurasian steppe, he knows ‘of no examples of a state emerging as a result of the internal development of a nomadic society’. The importance of external players to the domestic politics of these fi ve Central Asian states remains as critical today and, by way of conclusion, this chapter offers some closing remarks on the interface between regime security and state-building, on the one hand, and the jockeying by outside powers for infl uence and access to resources, on the other.