In support of this position, we would point to the emergence of six features of modernising education systems, as in public sector services generally, that appear to be common, or at the very least widespread, and in which evidence about educational effectiveness will necessarily play a significant role. These are:

. the rise of the performance culture, or 'performativity', and the perceived need to measure the effectiveness of professionals for comparative purposes (Carley 1988, Ball 1999)

. the trend toward increased accountability mechanisms, 'market-

isation' of education, and the perceived need for provision of information about individual and organisational effectiveness to stakeholders (Norris 1998, Power 1999, Whitty et al. 1998)

. the promotion of schools as learning organisations which are characterised by the use of performance data to improve school effectiveness (MacBeath et al. 2000)

. the widening range of responsibilities and changed demarcation of professional responsibilities under the modernisation of public services (Barber 1995, Merson 2000)

. a belief in continuous professional development and lifelong learning to improve teacher effectiveness (Fullan 1999)

. the concern for educational effectiveness in relation to inclusivity and social justice (Slee et al. 1998, Weiner 2002).