Candidates need to start writing early and continue doing it throughout their research projects. The production of written work is essential to enable them to reflect upon where they have been and where they are going, for them to receive feedback from others, and in many institutions it is a requirement for purposes of progression. So candidates need to write early and often. But candidates may, for a variety of reasons, prove reluctant to write in the early stages, and supervisors may need to provide encouragement and support for them to do so.