Reflecting historical patterns of access to higher education, traditionally doctoral candidates have been disproportionately male, from high-status social-economic backgrounds, members of majority ethnic and/or racial groups, and without a disability (see, for example, Bowen and Rudenstein 1992; Conrad 1994; Humphrey and McCarthy 1999). In the main, they have been young, entering doctoral programmes directly after completing bachelor’s or master’s degrees, and funded for three or four years of full-time study. Finally, and except for fieldwork, the vast majority have undertaken and completed their studies on campus.