I also suggest that the emergence of the Alevis as a secular community is a reflection of the wider transition to becoming part of the modern nation, and cannot simply be regarded as a desire to be relieved of actual and perceived persecution by the Sunni majority. This is in itself an important aspect of their lives in Turkey, but does not explain the way that they have allied themselves so forcefully with the idea that religion is a personal matter, and not something that should influence the state.