In this book, I discuss a heterodox Islamic group in Turkey known as the Alevis, and address the way that their community has become secular, albeit within a very wide range of personal belief. It would be disingenuous to claim that such a study can be made without controversy. Even leaving aside the question of individual faith, the possibility of clashes with the majority Sunni population, the relationship between religion and the state, the place of politics in religion, and the question of the respective numerical proportion of Alevi to Sunni are all topics where varied and forceful views have been brought to bear. These debates are likely to become even more heated in the future.