Systems theory (Bertalanffy, 1968) would see a school as being a system and as interconnected to other systems. Changes in one system will have an effect on other systems, e.g. changes in family systems can impact on school systems and changes in school systems can impact on family systems. Changes in parts of the system (subsystems) can affect other parts of the system, e.g. a change in the pastoral system of the school can impact on classroom behaviour and classroom behaviour can impact on the pastoral system. This circular action and reaction of systems is an example of recursive causality where systems and subsystems influence each other, a mutuality of influence. Interactions between members of systems and subsystems can be seen as reciprocal, that is influencing or disturbing each other.