The overthrow of old dynasties, the rise of new ones, and the most important revolutions have had quite trivial consequences compared with those of the discovery of America…. The consequences of the greatest victories have not, generally, brought happiness to humanity, or an improvement in the human condition: rather the reverse, whereas the discovery of America had beneficial results, though not uniformly. In South America we know how many centuries have passed since the Conquest…. It is, however, only too obvious that progress, the extension of literature and the arts have been slowed down by the inability of the Spaniards to generate a spirit of enterprise, owing to the excessive ease with which they could acquire gold and silver, the superstition and ignorance of the clergy, and the oppressive ways of religion. The growth of towns shows this. Lima, founded in 1532, has, today, but 52,000 inhabitants; Philadelphia, which was founded in 1682, now has 92,000, and we can foresee that in 1960 the United States will have 462,752,896 citizens, living at ease and enjoying the fruits of happiness and liberty.