The concept of dependency is well established in the psychological literature. Whereas early psychoanalytic theory emphasized the oral character and structural basis of dependency, social learning theory considered dependency to be acquired by learning and experience, and ethological theory posited that attachment or affectional bonding is the basis for dependency. All three theories have contributed to the concept of dependent personality disorder as defined by DSM. The basic feature of the disorder is abnormal dependency that causes subjective distress and/or functional impairment. However, the definition and criteria have changed in the different versions of DSM. In DSM-I, passive dependency personality was characterized by helplessness, denial, and indecisiveness, and was considered a subtype of the passive-aggressive personality. DSM-II listed passive dependent personality as “Other Personality Disorders of Specific Types” and gave no description or criteria. Convinced that a “passive-dependent” type was needed to counterbalance the “active-dependent” or histrionic personality disorder, dependent personality disorder was added to DSM-III (Hirschfield, Shea, & Weise, 1991), which gave three criteria (expanded to nine in DSM-IIIR), of which the essential feature was a pervasive pattern of dependent and submissive behavior. DSM-IV emphasizes the excessive need to be taken care of, leading to submissive and clinging behavior and fear of separation.