For much of the twentieth century it seemed that anti-colonial nationalism was its ‘last wave’, that Third World nationalisms represented the end of a long process of liberation against colonial powers begun in Latin America in the previous century. Indeed, the ‘last wave’ was the description of Benedict Anderson in his classic study Imagined Communities first published in 1983. The second issue was published in 1991, and by 1996 it was in its seventh impression. By this point Anderson had acknowledged that this description was premature, not only because plainly other waves of nationalism had followed it, but because the ‘periphery’ played a much more active and involved part in its oppression, and hence liberation, than previous theories had suggested.